A Dictionary of Science, Fifth Edition by John Daintith

By John Daintith

This best-selling dictionary comprises over 9,000 entries on all elements of technology and gives accomplished assurance of biology (including human biology), chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, and astronomy. Appendices conceal the periodic desk, geological time scale, and animal and plant class. New gains comprise digital thumb tags for simple reference, increased components together with astronomy and earth technological know-how and extra gains on key issues corresponding to the sunlight procedure and Genetically converted Organisms. additionally featured are brief biographies of prime scientists and chronologies of particular topics, together with plastics, electronics and cellphone biology. either concise and wide-ranging, this dictionary is a perfect convenient reference paintings and nice advent for college kids and non-scientists alike.

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Americium Symbol Am. n. d. p. p. 2607°C. Ten isotopes are known. The element was discovered by G. T. Seaborg and associates in 1945, who obtained it by bombarding uranium–238 with alpha particles. Ames test (Salmonella mutagenesis test) A test to determine the effects of a chemical on the rate of mutation in bacterial cells, and hence its likely potential for causing cancer in other organisms, including humans. Devised by US biologist Bruce Ames (1928– ), it is widely used in 32 screening chemicals occurring in the environment for possible carcinogenic activity.

Aluminosilicate The chief rock-forming mineral in, for example, some clays, feldspar, mica, and zeolite. Aluminosilicates are also key constituents of china, glass, and cement. Most have a tetrahedral silicate structure with aluminium atoms replacing some of the silicon. 24H2O, where A is a monovalent metal and B a trivalent metal. 12H2O (aluminium potassium sulphate-12-water). 12H2O (see potassium chromium sulphate), etc. The alums are isomorphous and can be made by dissolving equivalent amounts of the two salts in water and recrystallizing.

Vast quantities of ammonium sulphate are used as fertilizers. amniocentesis The taking of a sample of amniotic Ûuid from a pregnant woman to determine the condition of an unborn baby. A hollow needle is inserted through the woman’s abdomen and wall of the uterus and the Ûuid drawn off. Chemical and microscopical examination of cells shed from the embryo’s skin into the Ûuid are used to detect spina biÜda, *Down’s syndrome, or other serious biochemical or chromosomal abnormalities. amnion A membrane that encloses the embryo of reptiles, birds, and mammals within the amniotic cavity.

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